One of the most important basic software the computer needs in order to work, ( operating system ) and it is sometimes known
Operating system definition:
- It is a set of basic programs that manage the computer system and control all the tasks and tasks it performs.
- These programs make it easier for the user to make use of the devices that make up the computer and the various accessories such as the printer and the mouse.
- Other than that, the user was also able to benefit from various application programs such as text processing programs or business programs.
- Arithmetic or otherwise.
- The following figure shows the relationship between the operating system and computer components and software.
- The operating system is the most important program because it is the life of the computer. Usually the major manufactured companies.
- The computers may operate operating systems that are compatible with their devices or may delegate specialized companies to operate their operating systems. As for
- Smaller companies manufacture their equipment to be compatible with the products of a major company.
- Operating system functions vary with different computer sizes, for large computers need highly efficient operating systems that enable them to
- To deal with many computer units and the units attached to it, and it also enables them to provide the ability to operate many users.
- For one computer at the same time.
- On personal computers, operating systems are less complex, as they usually deal with a single user.
- Operating systems also vary according to the sizes of computers, they also vary within one size. Large computers, for example. Can It works with more than one system, while personal computers often work on one system. Operating systems may differ according to the company difference
- The computer manufacturer and the type of processor used in computers.
- A single system is available in several versions to enable it to work on several sizes of computers. Operating system “Unix”
- For example, several different versions have been issued, some of which can work on personal computers and others can work on devices.
- Server computer or central.
Operating system tasks:
Operating systems have multiple tasks and functions related to computer operations and control of its components, physical devices, and accessories.
The most important functions of the operating system can be defined as follows:
1- Control the data path:
The operating system transfers the data inside the computer from one unit to another as it is organized by exchanging it between different units. With a computer. It also organizes data and program archiving operations and maintains detailed information on its size and location.
2- Downloading the application programs:
An important function of the operating system is to load the application software into memory from the attached units or from the media. Computer-related storage. The process of downloading the programs is to transfer them from the storage media to the main memory and then to the unit.
Central processing is a prelude to its implementation. After the program is implemented, the operating system removes the program from the main memory. If it is not, The program is always evaluated – to allow for the download and implementation of other application programs.
3- Control of the main memory unit:
- Some operating systems are characterized by the implementation of more than one program at the same time, or for more than one user to work on a device
- Computer. In these cases, the operating system’s responsibilities include main memory allocations to more than one user in the case of
- More than one user is connected to the computer via the terminals.
4- Control of input and output units:
- This includes data access control processes via keyboard, mouse or other data, and display operations.
- Information on the screen or sent to the printer or any other units.
- 5- Confrontation with the user:
- The operating system organizes the confrontation method with the device user, and through this, the computer user can follow
- Programs that are implemented, and see the notes that the computer appears on the screen, as well as issuing commands to direct the computer
- To do the appropriate tasks.
When any malfunctions occur in one of the computer components, the operating system automatically runs a series of programs for it. Troubleshoot faults if possible.
How does the operating system work?
The operating system is usually stored on a hard disk, floppy disk, or optical disk.
When the computer is turned on, the following operations are performed:
Read and execute instructions and commands stored in the ROM.
2- Checking the computer units for their safety.
3- Loading the operating system from floppy or optical disks or from the hard disk.
4- Receiving orders for the user of the computer.
5- Download the application programs.
6- Return to the operating system, wait for user commands, and repeat steps starting from step 4.